Finding an effective cure for psoriasis will be much easier for scientists if they can understand the exact reason for its appearance. The question "why? " Not only appears in science, but also appears in every patient forced to fight this disease. Incentive theories started appearing hundreds of years ago. Today we have dozens of conjectures, but all of them are still waiting to be proved by science. Studying both the possible causes of psoriasis will help many patients avoid relapse, healthy people do not have to face.
The world dermatology has identified one of the sure reasons for the occurrence of psoriasis - it is a genetic predisposition. Today, 60% of all psoriasis patients have a loved one with the same problem. Such a conclusion prompted scientists to study in more detail the theory of the genetic origin of scaly lichen.
On April 5, 2013, the WHO Secretariat compiled a research report in this area. I have the following installed:
- if a parent is sick in the family, the child's risk of disease is 14%;
- if both parents are affected in the home, the risk increases to 41%;
- if the sister or brother is sick - 6%.
In this case, psoriasis can appear even after several generations, "ignoring" previous generations.
An important task for biochemists is to find out which genes are responsible for that inheritance. A patient genome study identified nine gene loci that may be related to psoriasis. However, the exact single gene responsible for the disease's genetics has not been established.
It is only known that the scaly lichen itself is not hereditary but only a predisposition. This means that a person whose loved one experiences the same problem will not necessarily suffer from psoriasis. Therefore, it cannot be considered an exclusive genetic disease. For psoriasis to manifest itself, it will need additional pathogens, which may also be considered its cause.
Also, the question remains about the remaining 40% of patients - why are they sick if no one in their family has the same problem? This task forces scientists to look for more causes of lichen scaly.
Infections and viruses are pathogens
The infectious theory of this disease appeared one of the first, it began to be studied about two centuries ago. Scientists of the 19th century were convinced of the fault of pathogenic microorganisms and tried to determine which of them was the cause of the disease. This explanation seems to be the most obvious, since psoriasis in a patient can appear suddenly and also suddenly improve. And today there are proponents of this idea among scientists.
The infectious theorists believe that pathogens send an impulse to the autonomic and endocrine systems, affecting their function. Such changes disrupt the body's normal ability to respond to environmental influences, to adapt to it. As a result, if we add one more stimulus, the skin cells will die not in 30 days (which is natural to them) but in 4-5 days, which is why ankeratinized cells appear on the hands, head, face, or the rest of the body. inflammation.
For many years, doctors have been studying fungi and bacteria, trying to find a link between them and the root cause of the disease. But among the known pathogenic organisms, none can become the "agent" of this dermatological disease. Today, the infectious theory of the emergence of scaly lichen is not considered as the main theory, but it has not been completely disproved either. There is still some association between psoriasis attack and infection.
It has been determined that angina, ARVI, streptococcal, tonsillitis and other infections are often accompanied by the first outbreaks of scaly lichen, and during remission, The disease will return. But most doctors tend to believe that an infection only causes the manifestation of an existing disease.
The theory of the viral nature of this disease was also one of the first to emerge. However, this theory has completely collapsed since the time the medicine discovered that psoriasis was not transmitted from person to person. However, there are viruses that remain in the body for many years, which decrease immunity and can cause psoriasis if the skin's immune system is damaged. In fact, there are cases of blood transfusion from sick to healthy people, even though healthy bodies are not infected with scaly lichen.
Theory of metabolic impairment
One of the characteristics that doctors notice with psoriasis is a low patient temperature. At first, this was considered one of the symptoms of the disease, but over time, doctors gave this phenomenon a different meaning. The fact that the temperature drops continuously indicates a disturbed metabolism.Patient blood tests have confirmed that psoriasis patients have too much cholesterol in both adults and children.
Such indicators show a violation of lipid metabolism in the body. This leads to the rapid keratinization of skin cells, which is why some scientists consider psoriasis a blood lipid disease. However, it is not yet determined whether cholesterol increased before the first outbreak or after an outbreak.
In addition to the cholesterol in the patient's body, the balance of minerals and vitamins is disturbed, such a change also leads to serious consequences. It has been demonstrated that vitamin C in patients with scaly lichen is in excess and vitamins B6, B12, A are inadequate. Also notice that they have broken content:
Changes in the mineral complex significantly impair the body's adaptive and protective functions. That is, scientists believe that metabolic disorders could create the ideal foundation for the disease: weakening the immune system, shortening the lifespan of skin cells, . . . When there is a trigger factor. Like (activated), disease progresses and symptoms appear first. What factors can affect this, we will also look at a bit below. Such a change not only causes inflammation on the body but also causes psoriasis in the nail.
Such violations in balancing useful ingredients have been confirmed by the laboratory. Therefore, when treating psoriasis, it is very dangerous for the patient to voluntarily take even vitamins. In complex therapy, it is necessary to apply a diet, usually a fasting diet and a low-calorie nutrition, because carbohydrate metabolism in the patient is also impaired. The positive developments from such activities partly support the theory of impaired metabolism.
But most doctors treat such changes as a consequence, not a cause of disease. Such suspicions are based on the fact that, initially, a metabolic disorder will slowly lead to other symptoms and the appearance of psoriasis on the skin in most cases.
Hormonal disruption in pathogenesis
Patient statistics show that women have a slightly higher risk of psoriasis than men. Moreover, in the weaker sex having such a problem, psoriasis flare-up symptoms mainly occur during ovulation and menstruation. Such characteristics in the "behavior" of the disease have led scientists to think of the hormonal factor in the development of the disease.
Indeed, in the case of hormonal insufficiency, patients often experience relapses: during pregnancy, menopause, on hormonal medications, . . . This hypothesis is supported by general statistics about the first manifestations of the disease. In women, symptoms initially occur at the age of 15, in men a little later - to 20-25 years old. This is due to the fact that the hormonal balance occurs later with stronger sex.
But this theory also finds its opponents when it comes to scientists. The fact that the hormonal change that is responsible for today's outbreak of dermatology does not raise suspicions among doctors, however, is considered the root cause of the disease. The hypothesis that the hormone can induce psoriasis in a healthy person is ruled out, since the first symptoms and recurrence of the disease occur on the basis of the hormone "calm".
Psychology of the disease
A study by the World Health Organization in the field of psoriasis shows that 2% of the total population on the planet is facing this disease. At the same time, the percentage of patients in developed and oceanic countries is much higher than in suburban or underdeveloped countries - an average of 4. 6%. An unusual trend begins to be studied, in the hopes of finding out what causes psoriasis. Research and conclusions of scientists about this phenomenon is that psoriasis can be caused by psychological causes.
Skin is designed to reflect the general state of the body, all changes in state of health, including psychological instability are "shone" on it. Some doctors tend to believe psoriatic plaques are the body's way of reporting problems on a nerve basis. As a result, the statistics fluctuate: in megacities, life is more vibrant, accompanied by more stress, as opposed to life being more measured in a small town.
Psychologists also involved in treating patients who are more prone to this theory. It is believed that psychosis can affect not only morality, but also organic composition, ie the body. As a result, various changes in the nervous system can cause indigestion, skin rashes, breathing problems, and changes in heart rate.
These disorders include:
- Inhibits libido. For example: “I want to live with someone else / do a different job / beat my boss / move out”. Suppressing these desires leads to adrenaline building up in the body and gradually destroying their organs and functions.
- Stress, psychosis, depression. Such changes can become the cause of the same metabolic disorders, hormonal disorders, etc. v.
- Feelings of guilt, unfinished obligation.
- Not satisfied with her own body.
- Frequent feelings of fear, anger or other strong emotions.
Sedative drug therapy and psychological training yield noticeable positive results in the patient, which favor the psychological nature of psoriasis. Even doubts about babies (then where do they get psoriasis? ) Are also explained by psychologists. It is known that infants can feel and react to a mother's state and health. So, in the event of a mother's problem, the baby can undergo many different changes, depending on the pathology.
Child custody is also considered a factor in the development of scaly lichen in children. For example, in the absence of a mother's affection, a child experiences strong adult-like emotions (pain, fear, resentment). In turn, the body tries to report malfunctions, and papules and plaques appear on the skin.
Excessive parenting can also lead to the same consequences, but this happens mainly in families with children 4 years of age or older. The personality that is formed is trying to have more freedom, and conversely, the parents are trying to bind the child to themselves. The conflict leads to an effect on the child's sensitive body in the form of an inflammatory rash.
Today, this theory of the cause of psoriasis is regarded as one of the main theories, along with immunology. Seductive scaly lichen therapy includes self-improvement, elimination of negative and stressful thoughts, and resting state. For treatment, they even prescribe meditation and yoga classes, travel, hobbies, which keep patients from getting worse than medication. However, the course of the disease and course of the disease showed that the only far different psychological factor.
Hypothesis of impaired immunity
Research in the field of genetic theory about the genesis of psoriasis shows that all patients have impaired cellular immunity. This trait is also inherited, but it can also arise due to a genetic mutation. Scientists have suggested that with a congenital or acquired atopic site, damaged skin could be subject to autoimmune invasion. That is, the body views the affected skin cells as hostile and attacks them.
This assumption is supported by patient blood tests and scale studies on plaques. It turns out that in the keratinized cells there are actually antigen complexes, and antibodies to these complexes have been found in the blood. In healthy people, this was not observed in the blood or in the dermis.
Such analyzes show that immune disorders play an important role in the formation of the first foci of psoriasis. In complex medical treatment, taking into account this fact, antihistamines are used to reduce the invasion of the immune system against their own cells. However, there are still a number of factors influencing the course of the disease and its recurrence, while not related to immunology, therefore, of all the hypotheses considered, no hypotheses exist. are accepted.
The recurrent cause can be prevented
Finding the root cause of the disease has led to the emergence of a series of theories and theories that await their scientific proof. Despite the fact that we cannot find the single cause, we have an extensive list of factors that cause relapses.
The first of these factors is stress, negative changes in the nervous system that become the trigger when the disease starts and causes an existing outbreak of psoriasis. Given this fact, doctors recommend their patients avoid stressful situations whenever possible.
Patient is shown active lifestyle, sports, walking.
In approximately 14% of patients, scaly lichen begins at sites of trauma and damage to the skin, which can happen if a person already has a predisposition to psoriasis. Scratches, scratches, or a rash can be the site of papules and plaques. The patient should carefully monitor the condition and cleanliness of the dermis, treat the wound with hydrogen peroxide and a bandage or cover.
Regular moisturizers are also recommended for body and scalp care, as dry skin is more likely to recur. It is necessary to give up exfoliating, hard wipes so as not to damage the skin again. Moisturize your body with hypoallergenic creams, ointments, or oils. At the first signs of the rash, you should not rely on reviews and images on the Internet to independently "establish" the diagnosis. This will only take up valuable time, it is better to consult a specialist.
Administration of drugs (both pills and ointments) must be monitored by a doctor, mainly antibiotics and immunomodulatory drugs. Even vitamin supplements can stimulate the progression of the disease, especially vitamins C, A, and B. If you have an infection or fungus, you should definitely consult your doctor. self-medication. It is important not to take viral illnesses into a chronic form and not delay your visit.
Proper nutrition is essential. Patients are prescribed a nutritious diet for the body, reducing the risk of disease recurrence. For each patient, this is a separate nutritional system based on the stage of the disease, the degree of immunity, and the presence of concomitant diseases. It is important not to violate the rules of the specified diet, avoid junk food, hypoallergenic food (honey, nuts, chocolate, citrus fruits, foodsred, etc. ).
Therefore, patients must maintain a completely healthy lifestyle: exercise the body, monitor nutrition and promote moral health. This also includes mandatory refusal of alcohol, as even small doses can trigger outbreaks of disease. Such principles will help prevent not only psoriasis but many other diseases as well.