Despite the fact that psoriasis is a common and well-known disease, it is not fully understood. And the patient is often completely unaware that psoriasis is not a bacterial infection and not a fungus, but a non-standard response of the immune system, caused by reasons. unclear. Information about the causes and symptoms of psoriasis will be very helpful for the patient, as they will help reverse the disease.
What is this disease?
Squamous lichen is another name for psoriasis, and this name perfectly describes the disease. Psoriasis is manifested by the formation of inflammatory plaques of varying sizes on the skin, which are densely covered with thick skin scabs.
Surely, almost everyone has heard of a disease like psoriasis. And this should come as no surprise, as scaly lichen is quite common. This disease is diagnosed in 4-10% of the world population. Furthermore, statisticians, who gathered information on the prevalence of psoriasis, assumed that the number of patients was steadily increasing.
Scaly lichen has been known to everyone since ancient times, and even healers in ancient Greece tried to treat the disease. The modern history of psoriasis research is about 150 years old. But during this rather critical period of time, researchers have been trying to find out enough about the cause and treatment of psoriasis.
Wide prevalence, unknown etiology (cause of occurrence), ineffective treatment - all these suggest psoriasis is one of the most difficult problems in dermatology.
Today, dermatologists consider psoriasis a complex systemic disease involving disorders in the immune system, with malfunctions of metabolism and the emergence ofnutritional disorders. These failures lead to specific changes in the skin.
So when answering the question of what psoriasis is, modern dermatologists will answer that these are disorders of the vegetative and metabolic processes in the skin due to the functioning of themalfunctioning body organs. Today, two theories about the etiology of psoriasis are considered to be the most likely: genetic and viral.
- Genetic theory is widely supported, since psoriasis often acts as an inherited or familial dermatological disease. A careful study of a patient's family history in 60-80% confirms the presence of psoriasis of one form or another in a patient's relative. However, in some patients, it is not possible to confirm the truth about the genetic origin of psoriasis. This circumstance is the reason for assigning these cases to a particular group, in which the main cause is not genetic, but phenotypic failures.
- The viral theory, under which psoriasis develops as a result of infection, there are proponents of it. Confirming information about the viral origin of psoriasis is the detection of antibodies in the patient's blood, as well as, "basic organ" in the cells of the epidermis. According to this theory, psoriasis develops not only when infected with the virus but also under certain conditions.
There are other theories that explain psoriasis. For example, endocrinology, neurology, metabolism, etc. Naturally, all of these theories are not without foundation, and their research allows you to have more important information about psoriasis. However, today it is known with certainty that the state of the endocrine and nervous systems, as well as the work of the gastrointestinal tract, does not cause psoriasis, but they have a significant effect on the process ofthis disease.
For example, diseases affecting the liver lead to a significant decrease in the quality of dialysis performed by this organ. And this, in turn, can cause the appearance of various skin manifestations, including psoriasis.
Pathologies that affect the liver (hepatitis, primary cirrhosis, etc. ), which leads to the fact that tissues of this organ are regenerated, i. e. the liver is gradually replaced by tissueslink. As a result, the liver is no longer able to cope with its cleansing functions. Externally, this is manifested by the yellow coloration of the mucous membranes and skin, and it is possible to develop skin diseases, including psoriasis.
There is also an inverse association, psoriasis is often accompanied by fatty degeneration affecting the liver. Therefore, in the treatment of this skin disease, it is important to follow a diet so as not to impose unnecessary burden on the liver. The patient is recommended to limit fatty foods, completely quit alcohol.
So although there has been a lot of research, it is impossible to have an exact answer to the question of what psoriasis is. However, work continues so there is a possibility that the mystery of this mysterious disease will be solved, let's learn a lot about psoriasis skin.
Psoriasis manifests itself in many different forms. To make navigation easier for professionals, a generally accepted psoriasis classification is used.
Added psoriasis to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). To date, 10 revisions of the International Register of Diseases have been used, hence the ICD abbreviation 10. Work began on 10 revisions of the International Classification of Diseases in 1983 andcompleted in 1987.
In essence, the ICD 10 is a standard evaluation tool used in health and health management. The handbook in version 10 is used to track the prevalence of various diseases and other health problems in the population.
Using version 10 of the ICD, it is possible to compare morbidity and mortality data in different countries, help obtain statistical data and systemize diagnostic information. By agreement of WHO members, ICD 10 is used to assign codes to various diseases. In the 10th version of the classifier, the alphanumeric code is adopted, with the help of which it is convenient to store information in electronic form.
All types of psoriasis are included in the ICD 10 and each of them is assigned a specific code. In dermatology, the following forms and types of psoriasis are distinguished:
- Common psoriasis(synonym: vulgar, simple, plaque). The disease has been coded under the ICD 10 - L-40. 0. This is the most common form, it is observed in 80-90% of patients. The main symptom is the formation of raised patches on the unchanged skin surface, covered with gray-white skin scales. This form is characterized by a slightly flaky scab. Once removed, the inflamed red skin opens up, very easily injured and begins to bleed. As the inflammatory process progresses, the plaques can increase in size significantly.
- Reversible psoriasis. This is a disease that affects the folds of the skin (the surface of the muscles that fold). For this form of the disease, the code L83-4 is accepted in the ICD 10. Skin disease occurs with the formation of folds in the skin of fine or less flaky nodules. The worsening condition is observed when the skin is injured by friction. It is often complicated by a streptococcal or fungal infection.
- Psoriasis of the intestine. This psoriasis form is characterized by the formation of a large number of small red or purple spots on the skin, resembling a teardrop shape. According to version 10 of the international classifier, such a disease receives the code L4. Usually, guttate psoriasis affects the skin of the feet, but a rash can occur on other parts of the body. At the same time, it is known that teardrop-shaped psoriasis which develops as a complication after streptococcal infection - pharyngitis, tonsillitis, etc. v.
- Purulent or exudative psoriasisis a severe form of skin, according to ICD 10, it is assigned the codes L1-3 and L 40, 82. It is characterized by the formation ofblisters or pustules. The affected skin is edematous, red, inflamed, and easily flaky. If fungus or bacteria get into the pustule, the substance inside the pustule becomes pus. Purulent psoriasis usually affects the distal limbs, but in the most severe cases a generalized process can develop with a rash that spreads throughout the body.
- Arthropathic psoriasis or arthropathy. According to version 10 of the ICD pathology, an L5 code is indicated. It is manifested by inflammation of the joints. Arthritis psoriasis can affect all types of joints, but most joints in the toe and hand are inflamed. The knee, hip, or shoulder joints may be affected. Injuries can be so severe that they can lead to disability. Therefore, you should not think about psoriasis that it is an exclusive skin disease. Severe types of psoriasis can lead to body damage, disability or even death.
- Psoriasis blood. A rare but serious type of psoriasis, according to the ICD 10, the disease receives the code L85. Skin psoriasis usually manifests itself as a systemic, whole or nearly entire skin surface that can penetrate the affected area. The disease is accompanied by severe itching, swelling, and soreness.
- Nail psoriasis or nail psoriasis. According to version 10 of the ICD, the disease is assigned the code L86. Pathology is manifested by changes in the shape of the nails in the toes and hands. Nails may change color, become thicker, and begin to deteriorate. You could completely lose your nails.
In psoriasis, the classification of the disease considers not only the types of the disease, but also the severity of symptoms:
- focal psoriasis is a disease in which less than 20% of the skin is affected;
- widespread psoriasis affects more than 20% of the body surface;
- if almost the entire skin surface is affected, we are talking about universal psoriasis.
If we look at all the diseases, common psoriasis is more common than other forms.
Stages of the stream
Psoriasis that is limited or widespread in its course goes through three phases: progressive, steady, and regressive.
The following are characteristics of the advanced stage of psoriasis:
- the appearance of a new rash;
- growth of arrays already exists;
- the appearance of new factors in the rash at the site of the trauma of the skin (abrasions, abrasions);
- does extensive scaling of existing arrays.
The following symptoms are characteristic of the stationary phase of psoriasis:
- no new elements will appear;
- just decomposes elements just right;
- showed no signs of element growth.
The appearance of folds in the horny layer around elements is a sign of a transition from a stationary phase to a retreat phase.
The regression phase is characterized by the following types of symptoms:
- reduces the intensity of peeling;
- the resolution of the elements.
After resolving the psoriatic plaques, the hypopigmented or hyperpigmented spots remain in their place.
Scaly lichen is characterized by a long process with periodic exacerbations. The following types of psoriasis are distinguished:
- winter (more severe in autumn and winter);
- summer (with exacerbations during warm periods);
- out-of-season psoriasis is the most severe, since there is no clear association between relapses and seasons of the year, actual remission periods may not be present.
If psoriasis has a typical clinical picture then the diagnosis will not be too difficult. However, this disease is often disguised as other pathologies.
For example, nail psoriasis is often confused with nail fungus, since the early-stage manifestations of these diseases are very similar. However, nail fungus and psoriasis are completely different in nature, so the treatment is different.
Ordinary people can confuse psoriasis and fungi for fungi. Because fungal skin (ringworm) is manifested by the same symptoms - the formation of scaly patches. So when you notice suspicious symptoms on your body or nails, you don't need to self-diagnose and read on to treat the fungus using medications or folk remedies.
If the diagnosis is wrong and in fact the cause of the symptoms is not the fungus but the psoriasis, then the treatment will not be beneficial but, on the contrary, will worsen the symptoms.
When contacting a dermatologist, an analysis will be performed to find the fungus, scraping will be taken from the nail or skin. The resulting ingredients are then placed in a nutrient medium. If fungus is present in the material, a large colony will grow in the test sample after a few days. By the appearance of the material, it is possible to understand which fungus caused the infection.
Sometimes psoriasis is complicated by the addition of a secondary infection, it can be a bacterial or fungal infection. Therefore, when the clinical picture changes (pus discharge, discoloration of plaques, etc. )are changed, the patient will have to periodically check for fungi and other infectious agents.
During a diagnosis, a certain role is assigned to a set of phenomena known as the psoriasis trio. The phenomena appear sequentially, when scraping the rash element.
The trio of psoriasis appears as follows:
- when scraping the rash element, the scales are removed in the form of "shavings";
- After removing the chips, a transparent thin film similar to polyethylene opens;
- When the film is damaged, the bleeding from the nail tip will open.
Dermatologist diagnoses psoriasis, but if necessary, the doctor can refer the patient to a consultation with other specialists - rheumatist, gastroenterologist, surgeon, etc. . v.
Interesting facts about psoriasis
Everyone has known psoriasis for a long time. Even the name of this disease is incorporated into our language from ancient Greek. At the height of the ancient Hellas, the word "psora" meant all skin diseases manifested by flaking and itching.
The first person to write a detailed treatise on psoriasis was a Roman named Cornelius Celsus. In the fifth volume of "De Pharmacy" there is an extended chapter on this disease.
They know about psoriasis, but the disease is not well appreciated, as it is called, sometimes as a "royal" disease, sometimes as a "demonic" disease.
Of course, ancient healers knew very little about psoriasis. Until the 19th century, this disease was often mixed with other skin diseases. Psoriasis was first identified as an independent form of pathology in 1799. This was done by British dermatologist Robert Villan, who pointed out psoriasis from a group of skin diseases, manifestingmanifested by itching and peeling.
Not only ordinary people, but also famous political figures know firsthand about psoriasis. For example, Winston Churchill, who suffered from the disease, promised to erect a golden monument for someone who could learn everything about psoriasis and come up with effective treatments for the disease. .
Modern understanding of this disease
It must be said that modern science does not know much about this mysterious disease. There are many different theories about the origin, as well as the course and treatment of psoriasis.
Here are some unquestionable psoriasis facts:
- despite the fact that the cause of the disease is not clear, it is still possible to find out the nature of psoriasis. This disease is an autoimmune disease, that is, it is caused by a breakdown of the immune system;
- is another proven fact about psoriasis: the disease can be inherited. However, not all cases happen, and even if both parents are infected, the risk of the child is 65%. At the same time, some patients develop psoriasis, although none of his relatives are ill;
- An interesting fact about psoriasis is that this disease is characterized by the Kebner phenomenon. This phenomenon manifests itself in the fact that elements of the rash are formed at sites of skin damage - scratches, burns, frostbite. Sometimes psoriasis appears after a while, at the site of scarring;
- One important observation that allows you to get more information about psoriasis is the relationship of the disease to climatic factors. Exacerbations and relapses often coincide with seasons;
- The patient probably has noticed an association between exacerbations and stress in practice. All patients should know for sure that the disease recurs or worsens amid stress and experience;
- a new fact about psoriasis is that the disease can appear at any age, although it was previously believed that psoriasis occurred after 30;
- it is important for everyone to know that psoriasis is not an infectious disease. Even in close contact with the patient, there is no risk of infection;
- almost everyone has heard of the incurable possibility of psoriasis, and this is true, as there is no definite cure for the disease. But the patient should be aware that psoriasis can be controlled. Adequate and timely treatment allows for long-term remission.
When it comes to the common psoriasis, one cannot help but mention how to treat this common disease. It must be said that it is impossible to cure psoriasis with just pills or ointments.
In order to forget the symptoms of psoriasis for a long time, the patient needs to have close cooperation with his doctor. It will be necessary to properly organize the food. Some experts claim that you can forget psoriasis forever with the help of a sensible diet and regular body cleansing.
The doctor will outline the treatment plan. As a rule, external treatments (ointments, creams) and systemic therapies (tablets, injections) are used. In addition, physical therapy methods to be used and therapies at resorts will be encouraged. It is advisable to treat psoriasis by using mud, minerals and hot water to heal.
Resorts can also offer non-traditional treatments. For example, with the help of fish living in hot springs. These little healers effectively remove dead skin flakes and disinfect the skin, accelerating the fastest healing process.
Spas may offer other treatments for scaly lichen. Examples: leech therapy, bathing and healing applications, sun therapy, etc. v.
You will need to prepare yourself that the treatment regimen will change periodically. Because not all methods are appropriate for a particular patient. If the selected treatments are ineffective, they will need to be replaced.
Alternative treatments for psoriasis are also widely advertised. Indeed, some of them can help with remission. However, when choosing a method, you need to remember common sense so as not to harm your health. If in doubt of a recipe or suggestion, then it is better not to use it. Consult your doctor before using any of these treatments.
Understand that psoriasis can only be forgotten forever if the patient himself and their surroundings are positively adjusted. Only belief in success and an optimistic attitude can help overcome this mysterious and insidious disease.