The psoriasis is a disease in which the skin appears red, flaky, scaly lesions covered with silvery-white scales.
Usually these rashes appear on the elbows, the knees, the skin, the scalp and lower back but can occur in any other place. Most people have little rash. In some cases they can itch or hurt.
In russia, the psoriasis patient is approximately 1% of the population, often psoriasis is common among the indigenous population of the North. Men and women suffer equally often. First symptoms of psoriasis often appear before the age of 30 years old, but the later onset of psoriasis is not uncommon. The severity of psoriasis each person is very different. Someone's psoriasis, it's just a little annoying, while others psoriasis prevents leading a normal lifestyle.
The psoriasis is a chronic disease, which is usually in remission without symptoms, or mild symptoms, after which came the period of exacerbation, if the symptoms become stronger.
The psoriasis occurs when the acceleration of the process of the reproduction of the body cells of the skin. The skin cells are usually, instead of 3-4 a month, but in psoriasis this process is shortened to 3-7 days. The result is a buildup of skin cells leads to characteristic changes in the body.
Causes of psoriasis is not fully understood, it is believed that the increased reproduction of skin cells is associated with impaired immune system. The immune system is the natural defense of the body from infections, diseases, but people with psoriasis mistakenly attacks healthy skin cells.
The psoriasis is inherited, therefore, considered that this disease is genetic factors. However, it is still not clear what role genetics plays in causing psoriasis.
For many people, psoriasis symptoms appear or worsen after a specific event, the trigger. Possible triggers of psoriasis the skin injury, infectious diseases of the throat and intake of certain medications. This disease is not contagious, cannot be passed from one person to another.
If you suspect psoriasis, contact your doctor. Often the doctor will make a diagnosis according to the appearance of the skin. In general, the diagnosis, the treatment of psoriasis a patient's guide to the dermatology specialist in skin diseases.
Although the psoriasis cure is not possible, there are several treatment methods that can alleviate the symptoms, improve the appearance of skin. In most cases, is mainly assigned to local treatment, for example, the vitamin D analogues or corticosteroids local action. In the most severe cases, when you don't help other treatment methods, can be used systemic treatment. Systemic treatment is the ingestion or injection of the drug, which the therapeutic effect to the whole body.
For some people psoriasis is just a minor problem, but sometimes it can greatly affect your life. For example, some people with the psoriasis is low self-esteem because of how the disease affects the appearance. Often when psoriasis appears, pain, pain, swelling, joint, and connective tissue. This is called psoriatic arthritis.
The symptoms of psoriasis
In most cases, psoriasis runs in cycles: every few weeks or months disease exacerbated and the symptoms are less noticeable, or disappears, and then comes the letting go.
Many different types of psoriasis. Many people suffer from, only one of the forms of psoriasis, although it is possible that the disease are two different types of at the same time. One type can transform into another type, or worsen. If you suspect psoriasis, contact your doctor.
Common types of psoriasis
Ordinary psoriasis. This is the most common form of psoriasis, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Symptoms of dry, red skin lesions, called plaques covered with silvery-white scales. They usually appear on the elbows, the knees, the skin, the scalp and lower back but can appear in any other place. Plaques itch, (or) hurt. In severe cases, the skin at the joints may crack and bleed.
Psoriasis of the scalp (seborrheic psoriasis) may occur on the scalp, or the adjacent skin, as well as the back and chest. What a reddish rash, thickly covered with silver white scales. There are people who have this type of psoriasis causes severe itching, while others don't cause discomfort. In the most severe cases can lead to hair loss, often temporary.
The nail psoriasis. Approximately half the patients with psoriasis the disease affects the nails. Psoriasis of the nails may develop small holes or bumps, it could be to lose color, shape and form. Often, the nails may eventually loose, move away from the nail bed, which contains. In severe cases, the nail can crumble.
Psoriasis in the form of drops appears small (less than 1 cm) plaques in the form of drops on the chest, the hands, the legs, under the hair. There's a great likelihood that the guttate psoriasis completely go away after a few weeks, but some people turn an ordinary psoriasis. This type of psoriasis sometimes occurs after a streptococcal infection of the throat, is more common in children and adolescents.
Wrinkles psoriasis - affects the skin folds such as under the armpits, groin, between the buttocks or under the Breasts. May appear larger smooth rash some or all of these areas. The symptoms are aggravated by friction and sweating, so it can't be implemented, with special discomfort in the hot weather.
Rarer type of psoriasis in which the skin appears, the blisters (vesicles are purulent content). Different types of pustular psoriasis, or noticed the different body parts.
Pulstole generalized psoriasis (psoriasis background Tsumbush). Blisters occur, the large surface area of the skin develop very quickly. The pus consists of white blood cells, and the appearance is not always directly related to infection. Blisters also cyclically re-appear every few days or weeks. At the beginning of this cycle I psoriasis background Tsumbush can cause fever, chills, weight loss, chronic fatigue.
Palmar-plantar psoriasis. Blisters appear on the palms, soles. The blisters becoming more round, brown spots, scales, which is then separated from the skin. Blisters appear again every few days or weeks.
Pustular acrodermatitis (acrobustulosis). Blisters appear, the fingers, the hand or the foot. Then the blisters break, after they leave bright red areas that may bleed, or covered with scales. Can lead to painful lesions of the nails.
Erythrodermic psoriasis (erythroderma psoriatic arthritis)
Erythrodermic psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis that affects almost the entire surface of the skin. It causes severe itching or burning sensation. Because erythrodermic psoriasis on the body to lose proteins and fluid. This can lead to other complications, such as infection, dehydration, heart failure, hypothermia, exhaustion.
The psoriasis causes
The psoriasis occurs when skin cells divide, are updated faster than the usual. Causes of psoriasis is not fully understood. The body produces new cells in the deepest layer of the skin. These cells gradually move up. Coming to the surface, they die. This is a normal process gradually, unnoticed. The skin cells are updated every 3-4 weeks.
People with psoriasis this process shouldn't take more than 3-7 days. The result is not yet fully formed cells rapidly accumulate on the surface of the skin, causing the appearance of red, flaky, scaly lesions covered with silvery-white scales. It is believed that the patients with psoriasis the skin cells to change faster because of the weakened immune system.
The immune system defense of the body that help fight infections. One of the main types of cells that are used, the immune system, called T-lymphocytes.
T-cells normally travel around the body, the infection and fight with them. People have psoriasis mistakenly attack the healthy skin cells. This causes the immune system to produce more T-cells for new skin cells faster than normal.
It is not clear exactly what causes the disease, the immune system, although there may be a certain role for certain genes, and environmental factors.
The psoriasis hereditary. One of three patients with psoriasis have a close relative with the disease. However, it is still not clear what role genetics plays in causing psoriasis. The results of the study show that the development of psoriasis may respond to a number of genes. It is likely that a person more susceptible to this disease, they can different combination. However, inheritance of psoriasis, but only the predisposition to the presence of these genes does not mean that you will necessarily develop the disease.
Trigger the psoriasis
For many people, psoriasis symptoms appear or worsen after a specific event, the trigger. If you know your triggers, it will also help to avoid aggravation of symptoms. Examples of common triggers:
- damage to the skin, e.g. a cut, scratch, insect bite or sunburn (the so-called phenomenon Kebner);
- alcohol abuse;
- the stress;
- the hormonal changes, especially in women (e.g., during puberty, menopause);
- certain drugs, such as lithium, some antimalarial medicines, anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors (treatment), and beta-blockers (for the treatment of congestive heart failure);
- throat infection — certain people, especially children, young adults after a streptococcal throat infection is developing a form of psoriasis called guttate psoriasis, although in most cases, after a streptococcal throat infection psoriasis arises;
- other disorders of the immune system, such as HIV, which is the formation or exacerbation of psoriasis.
Psoriasis is not contagious, why not spread from one person to another.
Diagnosis of psoriasis
As a general rule, the diagnosis of psoriasis sufficient external inspection of the skin.
More rare cases required a biopsy (small sample of skin), which is then sent to the laboratory for examination under a microscope. It allows you to determine the particular type of psoriasis and rule out other skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, lichen planus, simple chronic zoster, pityriasis rosea.
Usually diagnosis of psoriasis treatment is conducted under the supervision of a dermatologist specialist in skin diseases. If your doctor suspects you have psoriatic arthritis, which sometimes occurs as a complication of psoriasis, you may be referred to have the option. The rheumatologist doctor who specializiruetsya in the synovial inflammation.
Take blood tests to rule out other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and took x-rays of the joints affected by the disease.
The treatment of psoriasis
Completely cure psoriasis is not possible, however, the treatment reduces the severity frequency of exacerbations. In general psoriasis treatment, under the supervision of a dermatologist, in the case of the intervention in the process of the joints is assigned to consult a rheumatologist. If the symptoms of psoriasis is significantly pronounced, badly responds to treatment, your doctor may refer you to the admission to the hospital, the Department of dermatology.
A special method of treatment is applied depending on the type and the severity of psoriasis and the areas of the skin affected. If the psoriasis symptoms of mild and not growing, the doctor may be limited to the appointment of the external devices, for example in the form of a cream. The acute phase is usually assigned to a more serious treatment, the medication within.
There is a wide range of products for the treatment of psoriasis, but it can be difficult to determine which is the most effective tool. Talk to your doctor if you feel that the treatment is not helping, or side effects may cause discomfort.
Treatment methods are divided into 3 categories:
- local treatment of the skin with apply creams, ointments;
- light therapy — the skin is irradiated for a particular type of ultraviolet rays;
- system — the ingestion or injection of the drug, which the therapeutic effect to the whole body.
Often different treatment methods combined. As the patient's psoriasis requires long-term treatment, it is logical that a written plan drugs manipulations that need to be done daily. Your doctor regularly checks the status, if necessary, adjust the treatment plan.