Psoriasis or psoriasis is a chronic disease that affects the skin and its appendages: the hair and nails. Characterized by periods of worsening condition (relapses) and temporal well-being, when symptoms will be less. This disease is not contagious and the patient is not dangerous to others. Since the appearance of psoriasis is not related to micro-organisms.
Psoriasis often occurs between the ages of 15-45 years. It affects people with fair skin. In developed countries, many psoriasis patients to achieve 2-4% of the population. It suffers from that 25. a resident of the planet earth all continents.
This question deals with a huge number of medical institutions. Therefore, psoriasis has become the most studied disease. But still this disease is not fully understood. Officially it is considered incurable and raises many questions.
Psoriasis is called your immune system cells of the body. They rose from the lower layers of the skin at the top, causing inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells and the formation of small capillaries.
Symptoms of psoriasis on the skin are quite different. Most often the disease causes red spots and psoriatic plaques. They are dry to the touch, rise above the surface of the skin and covered with a white bloom.
The disease is divided into two large groups: pustular and non-pustulous psoriasis.
- ordinary (vulgar) or simple psoriasis (plaque-like psoriasis, psoriasis is a chronic, stable)
- psoriatic erythrodermic psoriasis, or erythroderma in
- pustular psoriasis von Tsumbush or generalized pustular psoriasis
- palmoplantary psoriasis (pustular psoriasis of the extremities, chronic continuous palmoplantary pustules)
- annulary pustular psoriasis
- Palms and soles psoriasis
- herpetiformista psoriatic impetigo
In addition, there are the following types of psoriasis
- seborrheic psoriasis
- psoriasis flexor surfaces and skin creases
- psoriasis Napkin
- psoriasis caused by medications
Severity distinguish such forms of psoriasis
- Light – struck in less than 3% of the skin.
- Moderate 3-10% of the skin covered with a memorial plaque.
- Heavy – is a common injury, or involved in more than 10% of the skin.
Causes of psoriasis
So far there is no unequivocal answer to the question: "why do I get psoriasis?". Scientists have presented several theories.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. It is based on the failure of the immune system. The immune system cells of T-killers and T-helpers, whose task is to protect the body from viruses, bacteria and cancer cells, for some reason, to penetrate the upper layers of the skin. Here they produce inflammatory mediators – substances that trigger an inflammatory reaction. The result is improved skin cell division and reproduction (proliferation).
Psoriasis is a disease that is caused by impaired growth, division and maturation of epithelial cells - keratinocytes. The result of these changes the skin, attack the immune system cells, T-lymphocytes and macrophages in the diseased cells of the skin.
Factors that contribute to the development of psoriasis
Doctors found a number of factors that can cause the disease. Of course, most often, psoriasis occurs when the body works a number of such conditions.
- Genetic predisposition. There is a theory that the genes responsible for the immune system and function of T-lymphocytes are the carriers of the disease. Therefore, parents who suffer from psoriasis, the probability to give birth to children who develop the same symptoms.
- Thin dry skin. It was found that people with these characteristics of the skin suffer more often than those with oily skin and well hydrated. This is probably due to the protective function of the sebaceous and features of the structure of the skin.
- External stimuli. A large proportion of patients, among people who are constantly in contact with the alcohol solutions, solvents, household chemicals, cosmetics (creams, cream for the hands).
- Excessive hygiene – excessive love of cleanliness also weakens the protective properties of the skin. Soap, shower gel and washcloths to wash away the natural protective barrier and leaves behind a microscopic injuries.
- Bad habits – alcohol, Smoking and drugs is bad for the skin. It will aggravate the blood circulation and nutrition.
- HIV – AIDS patients are more susceptible to the occurrence of psoriasis. Scientists can not explain this phenomenon. The fact that psoriasis is caused by increased activity of lymphocytes and AIDS, their number decreases.
- Medication – some medications can trigger the disease. Among them are: beta-blockers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antimalarial medications, lithium carbonate.
- Infection (fungi and Staphylococcus aureus). Often there have been cases when the psoriasis appeared immediately after a fungal infections or diseases caused by Streptococcus.
- Moving – change of climate or even the time of year that environmental degradation can be triggered by this disease.
- Stress is a strong emotional shock or physical stress (prolonged hypothermia, overheating, accidents) preceded the appearance of the first symptoms of psoriasis.
- Injury permanent effects on the skin: pressure, friction, scratching. This regular injury can cause in this place for the first psoriatic plaques.
- Allergic diseases – allergic skin rash and processes that occur at the same time, all layers of the skin, also increase the risk of disease.
What are the symptoms and signs-psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a systemic disease, which affects not only the skin and nails. It affects the joints, tendons, and spine, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. Often affects the kidneys, liver, thyroid. The patient feels tired, suffers from chronic fatigue and depression. Such a complex effect on the body, the disease in recent years is called psoriatic disease.
But still, the main manifestations of the disease occur on the skin. The name "psoriasis" is quite accurately convey the symptoms of psoriasis. The first manifestations often become papules are pink or bright red color, rounded shape, covered with scales – psoriatic plaques. They are located symmetrically, mainly in the extensor surfaces, lower back and scalp. But can affect any areas of the skin and genital mucosa. Their size varies from a few millimeters in the early stages, up to ten centimeters or more.
Depending on the characteristics of the rash, share this form of psoriasis:
- Point psoriasis is the size of elements smaller than a pinhead.
- Guttate psoriasis papules are shaped like tears and to achieve the whole grain.
- Nummular psoriasis is plaques grow 3-5 mm, and have rounded edges.
In addition, there are forms of skin rash, when its elements are in the form of rings, arches, and garlands, maps with jagged edges.
Papules covered with a coating, which is easy to remove. It consists of epidermis keratinized cells. Psoriatic plaques began to be covered with scales from the center, then the RAID is not spread to the edges. It is a loose and light appearance is due to the fact that the keratinized cells passes through a space filled with air. About elements can be formed in the pink ring is the site of inflammation, increase plaque. The skin surrounding the lesions has not changed.
Under the touch detected by the shiny smooth bright red surface. This blood capillaries with thin walls, covered with a thin film. They become visible because of thinning of the upper layers of the skin. The normal structure of the skin is broken due to the fact that cells, keratinocytes Mature and usually does not have time to differentiate.
Psoriasis of the scalp is psoriatic plaques that significantly rise above the surrounding skin. They are densely covered with scales that resemble dandruff. Although hair is not yet taken. The rash can be not only hair, but smooth skin of the neck and behind the ears. These changes are explained by the active share keratinocytes in the affected areas
Psoriasis feet and palms causes severe thickening of the Horny layer of the skin in these areas of the body. The skin is thick, rough. Often penetrate into the cracks. It is caused by intensive cell division, which is multiplied up to 8 times faster than normal, but not removed in time from the surface of the skin.
Nail psoriasis is characterized by various symptoms. But the most important thing are the two main types of damage to the nail plate:
- Type "thimble". The nail plate is formed with small holes, such as needle marks needle.
- The type of onychomycosis. The lesions resemble fungus on the nails. The nails to thicken, discolor, peel. Through the nail plate is visible in the psoriatic papule, surrounded by a red border. He has the appearance of oil spots seen through the nail.
Symptoms and signs-psoriasis depends on the stage of the disease, which alternate cyclically throughout the year. Because the majority of patients is "winter" type of the disease, when exacerbation is indispensable in autumn and winter. Improvement in the summer due to the fact that uv light in sunlight has a therapeutic effect. But some patients suffer from "summer" type.
It is so stages of psoriasis:
- progressive – the emergence of new elements, the active growth of the existing plaques, pink growth zone around, intense flaking and itching.
- stationary – stop growth of the papules, the absence of new damage, a little folding of the top layer of skin around the psoriatic plaques.
- in a recession– no peeling, the disappearance of the plaques and the appearance of their place, areas of pigmentation, evidence of the attenuation process.
How to look skin rashes, psoriasis?
Every body is different and reacts differently to the disease. Therefore, the nature of the damage can be very different. This explains the different forms and types of psoriasis.
However, most people symptoms of psoriasis are similar. It stains red psoriatic plaques, rising 1-3 mm above the level of the healthy skin. Their appearance is due to the fact that the cells of the superficial layer of the skin – keratinocytes, divide very actively, which do not have time to Mature and become a full-fledged skin cells. As a result, improved the pathological growth of the individual areas of the skin thicken. This occurs under the influence that immune system cells secrete chemicals that cause inflammation in the skin.
The spots are red in color. And if you don't remove the top scales psoriasis patches, its surface begins to be covered with blood dew. This is due to the fact that under the influence of T-lymphocytes and the immune system dendritic cells have increased formation of new blood vessels under the plaque. They are quite thin wall. This cause bleeding of psoriatic plaques at the slightest damage.
Sometimes through the walls of the vessels leak lymph and inflammatory exudate. The shell is the plaque becomes thick, yellowish. Surface touch moist.
On top of the tiles can be covered with a gray, silver or yellowish coating that has the appearance of wax. Therefore, they are called "paraffin lakes". It is the dead skin cells, the rejection of which is broken, and they accumulate on the surface of the affected area of the skin.
Place the peel, hotter to the touch than other skin, can reach large sizes. Often, the patient experiences severe itching in this place. This is due to the fact that the underlying inflammatory process is a cascade of neuro-reflex reactions and allergic reactions.
Another type is the papules. This small lesions resembling tubercles. The size is about 1 mm. In the center is a cavity filled with content. Often they are located in the knee and elbow joints. They remain even in times when the disease is retreating.
The first plaques appear in areas where the skin is drier and contact with household chemicals and detergents – open areas arms, neck. They can be from any part of the body: scalp, face, trunk, genitals, buttocks, legs. Unlike fungal diseases, psoriasis rash does not occur in the armpits and in the natural folds, where the skin is moist and oily. In some forms of the disease show only a few tiles that do not add to the size. When the hand-foot-shaped lesions are just for these sites.
During exacerbations the lesions gradually increase in width and merge with the neighboring plaques. Periods of improvement (remission), the spots start to lighten in the middle. They gradually acquire the shape of a ring and can completely dissolve. When the tile body leaves marks – pigmentation. It can be considerably lighter or darker than the surrounding skin. When people get a tan, the skin color is usually a line.