Psoriasis: causes, diagnosis and treatment

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From psoriasis affects about 4% of the population of the globe. It can develop at any age from birth to old age, but is most psoriasis "loves" the young. This is evidenced by the fact that 70% of patients develop psoriasis before the age of 20 years.

Symptoms of psoriasis: itching, rash, peeling

Who to see: dermatologist

Tests and examinations: biopsy of skin

Methods of treatment: cryotherapy, PUVA therapy, plasmapheresis

Psoriasis is a chronic non-infectious disease that is most often seen in the form of rashes and peeling of the skin.

From psoriasis affects about 4% of the population of the globe. It can develop at any age from birth to old age, but is most psoriasis "loves" the young. This is evidenced by the fact that 70% of patients develop psoriasis before the age of 20 years.

If the skin rashes, resembling psoriasis should consult a dermatologist. Rashes represent the itchy scaly plaques of various sizes. While plaque psoriasis can appear on elbows, knees, scalp or other parts of the body. The doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and, depending on its form, to prescribe treatment.

Causes of psoriasis

Psoriasis is an abnormal reaction of the body to external stimuli, by which some parts of the body the top layer of skin dies a lot faster than normal. If you normally cycle of division and maturation of skin cells takes 3-4 weeks, in psoriasis this process occurs in just 4-5 days.

Currently, psoriasis is considered to be hereditary multifactorialnyh disease: the basis of disease there is not one but a whole range of reasons – immunological changes and metabolic disorders associated with endocrine and neurological disorders. You can say that psoriasis is not infectious, and therefore not a contagious disease.

The causes of psoriasis are still not completely found. On this score there are various theories.

According to one theory, there are two types of psoriasis:

• Psoriasis type I is invoked by the inherited failure of the immune system. This form of psoriasis affects about 65% of people, and the disease manifests itself at a young age, from 18 to 25 years.
• Psoriasis type II appears in people older than 40 years. With this type of psoriasis is not hereditary and is not associated with breakdowns in the cells of the immune system. Moreover, in contrast to psoriasis type I which prefers a skin, psoriasis type II more often affects the nails and joints.

According to another theory, the cause of psoriasis are solely immunity disorders caused by various factors: it could be stress, or infectious diseases, or cold climate, or poor diet. For example, noted that alcohol can cause exacerbation of psoriasis, especially beer, champagne, spirits. Use of products containing vinegar, pepper, chocolate, also worsens the disease and can cause exacerbation of psoriasis. According to this theory, psoriasis is a systemic disease. This means that in case of serious violations of the immune system, the process may spread to other organs and tissues, e.g., joints. As a result, can develop psoriatricheskii arthritis, which is characterized by lesions of small joints of hands and feet.

The symptoms of psoriasis

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Symptoms of psoriasis are inflamed, scaly patches of red, accompanied by severe itching. Such patches (plaques) often located on the skin of the scalp, knees and elbow joints in the lower back and in places skin folds . About a quarter of patients affects the nails.

Depending on the seasonality of relapses (worsening of the disease) there are three types of psoriasis: winter, summer, uncertain. The most common winter type of psoriasis.

In the period of exacerbation of symptoms of psoriasis on the hands, the knees, the head and also in the lower back and in places skin folds appear in the form of plaques reddish color. Their sizes vary from a pinhead to large areas of the palm size and more.

Rashes are usually accompanied by flaking and painful itching. In the process of peeling of superficial scales are more dense, arranged in depth (hence the second name of psoriasis — psoriasis). Sometimes in the affected areas of the skin appear cracked and festering.

For progressive psoriasis is characteristic of the so-called phenomenon Kebnera: the development of plaques in areas of trauma or scratching of the skin.

About a quarter of patients affects the nails. This raises a deeper point and spotting of the nail plate. In addition, the nails can utolzhatsya and crumble.

In the summer, under the influence of sunlight, in patients with winter form of psoriasis symptoms subside, and sometimes disappear. Patients summer type of psoriasis, on the contrary, it is recommended to avoid exposure to the sun because it worsens the disease.

Diagnosis of psoriasis

Diagnose psoriasis by a dermatologist. It should be invited with the appearance of the skin lesions similar to psoriasis — plaques of various sizes, red, itchy and flaky. To clarify the diagnosis may require skin biopsy.

The treatment of psoriasis

If the doctor detects a psoriasis at the initial stage, it is quite possible you will be assigned predominantly preventive rather than curative means.

When significant symptoms of the disease are used the following methods of treatment of psoriasis:

• cryotherapy is a method of cold exposure;
• plasmapheresis - blood purification;
• therapy with UV — a treatment is short-term procedures, similar to the Solarium. For more effective treatment of psoriasis this method is often combined with administration of specific medications PUVA therapy).

In no case do not try to deal with psoriasis treatment with ultraviolet radiation without medical advice. In psoriasis, small doses of ultraviolet light are medicinal, and increased — on the contrary, can podhlestnut the development of the disease. The same applies to sunbathing.

Unfortunately, nobody knows how to cure psoriasis completely, because the body "retains memory" of the disease in the form of biochemical, immunological and functional changes. Recurrence of psoriasis can occur at any time, so patients with this diagnosis should always be seen by a dermatologist.

09.08.2018